The #record #turntable has been around for a long time in various forms, this is an example of an early #phono graph record player, the record was mechanically turned by a spring arrangement, that the user would have to wind up by turning a handle on the side of the unit, this would spin the record, until it had to be wound up again, the needle which was fairly large, would resonate in the tracks, the sound would then resonate up through the metal radiator or speaker, it was crude sound, but it worked, and was the best that technology had to offer. This was mono, as in one track, this is going back before 1957 when the #stereo turntable was invented, after all we do have two ears, so we went from mono, one channel to two channels, stereo and beyond with surround sound.
Early turntables were produced in many variations , even in stereo configurations. These early turntables, had a hand cranked spring to turn the platter, remember, homes did not have #electricity, you can see the hand crank to the right on this example, the same as your wrist watch use to be.
When #stereo was invented, that started to make some very interesting changes for listening to recorded music, engineers now had two channels to play with, you can for example balance or pan the music to the left or right of the channels, on an audio mixer it is called Pan, this allows you to put instruments to the left or right of the channels.
on an audio mixer allow you to balance the instrument to either the right or left of the channel, this allows the engineer to give a position in the mix for that instrument.
Modern tables are driven mainly in two ways, that is direct drive or belt.
A direct drive is as the name implies, has a motor directly couple to the spindle or platter, this is crystal controlled, there are other versions and names, the object is total accuracy in speed control, as to prevent wow and flutter, this is shown very clearly by the red strobe on the left hand side of the platter, shown in the above.
This is a superb example of a belt driven turntable with the drive motor to the left, and the belt to the platter clearly shown. Notice the base of the turntable, being very thick, eliminates rumble.